PIURA AND MANCORA
Piura is a coastal region in northwestern Peru. The region’s capital is Piura and its largest port cities, Paita and Talara, are also among the most important in Peru. The area is known for its tropical and dry beaches.The country’s latest decentralization program is in hiatus after the proposal to merge departments was defeated in the national referendum in October 2005. The referendum held on October 30, 2005, as part of the ongoing decentralization process in Peru, to decide whether the region would merge with the current regions of Lambayeque and Tumbes to create a new Región Norte was defeated.
The Piura Region is bordered to the north by the Tumbes Region and Ecuador, to the east by Cajamarca Region, to the south by the Lambayeque Region, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. “Punta Pariñas” in Piura is South America’s most western point.
The territory of the Piura Region has many climate variations due to its geographical location. It is just 4 degrees south of the equator, yet receives two ocean currents at the same time: the cold Humboldt Current (13-20 °C 55-68 F) and the warm El Niño Current (20-27 °C, 68-80 F). This makes the Piura Region a land that is both tropical and arid at the same time, The Land where the Tropics meets The Desert
The coast is divided by the Peruvian subtropical desert of Sechura on the south and savanna-like scrub tropical dry forests to the center and north of the region. There are also small valleys of tropical climate, where rice and coconut fields are common, especially around the Piura and Sullana rivers.
There is a high Amazon climate (selva alta) as one goes away from the coast onto the sierra; Páramo climates and cooler temperatures appear as one climbs the sierra.
Topography is smooth in the coast and rough in the Sierra. There are many arid plains in the southern region. The Sechura Desert, located south of the Piura River, is Peru’s largest desert and one of the world’s few examples of a tropical desert; it borders a tropical terrain to the north. The Bayóvar Depression, which is the lowest point in Peru and all of the Southern Tropics, is located in this desert.
The morphological forms most common in the coast are the dry ravine that suddenly become copious when there are heavy rains, forming tropical dry forests all over. Other features are half-moon shaped dunes, the marine terraces such as those of Máncora, Talara and Lobitos. Valleys have been formed by fluvial terraces of the Chira River and Piura River.
To the east, valleys are more or less deep and have been eroded by rivers forming equatorial tropical-dry-forests. The major peak surpasses 3000 m. The Paso de Porculla, in the southwest of the territory is only 2,138 meters high and is the lowest pass of the Peruvian Andes.
The rivers crossing its territory belong both to the Pacific watershed and to the Amazon Basin. The Chira River is the most important and flows into the Pacific Ocean. The Piura River also flows into the Pacific Ocean although the flow varies greatly with the changing seasons and during severe droughts will dry up.
The climate is subtropical and tropical savanna in the center and north coast, Semi-arid in the southern coast near Lambayeque Region. Piura has a tropical dry or tropical savanna climate monsoon weather that averages 26 °C (79 F) throughout the whole year. Pleasant warm winters (May to October) that average between 25 °C and 28 °C (77 F and 82 F) during the daytime and lows around 16 °C (61 F) during the night.
Piura is covered by deserts, tropical valleys, dry equatorial forests, high Amazon climates as you reach between 1000 and 1500 meters, and a humid subtropical sierra climate if you reach over 2,000 meters. The Páramo climate is found in the higher regions of the Sierra.
Rain is scarce from May to November: it rains only from December to April at discontinuous rates due to the influence of the El Niño Current, but every so often, when the El Niño phenomenon arrives, rain is copious and makes the dry ravines become alive, giving rise not only to the impressive forests but to many floods and great landslides. El Niño occurs when ocean waters reach 27 °C (80 F). When ocean water temperatures elevate 1 or 1.5 degrees Celsius higher than 26 °C (79 F), the consequence could be catastrophic rains.
Although ocean waters can drop to 19 °C (66 °F) during the dry winter months (May to October), they can also rise to 27 °C (80 F) during the humid summer months (December to April); this calls for pleasant rains; yet if the temperatures rise 1 or 1.5 °C degrees above that, El Niño is assured.
During summer (December to April) temperatures can reach over the 40 °C (104 F) inland. During night time, high 20s or even 30s may seem unpleasant, which urge people to go to beach resorts such as Máncora or Colán.
The rest of the months have pleasant summer temperatures in the low 30s and mid 20s °C (77-90 F).
Natural resources and wildlife
Piura is a land of unique algarrobo trees, a variety of mesquite similar to the carob, and it is the region with the most equatorial tropical dry forests in the whole Pacific.
These ecoregions carry a unique variety of orchids, birds, reptiles, plants and mammals. Piura is known for the best and oldest lime-lemons in South America as well as South America’s finest mango (tropical dry). With Lambayeque, it is the original home of Pima cotton. Piura also produces bananas, coconuts, rice and other fruits as local income.
The “Manglares de Vice” in the Sechura Province of Piura is the southernmost region of the Pacific to hold mangroves.
Its development has been favoured also by the petroleum found in the ocean of Talara Province, fishing is blessed by two ocean currents, silver mines are common and the current Bayovar Deposits are present as well.
The most important culture that developed in the Piura region was Vicús, which stood out for its ceramics and delicate work in gold. The Tallanes or Yungas, however, were the first settlers, who migrated from the Sierra. During a period that is still vague, they lived in behetrias, which were primitive settlements without a head or an organization. Later they were conquered by the Mochicas and, centuries later, by the Incas, during the rule of Tupac Inca Yupanqui.
In 1532, Francisco Pizarro founded the first Spanish city in South America on the banks of the Chira River in the Tangarará Valley. He named it San Miguel de Piura. The founding date is still subject of controversy. However, during the 450th anniversary celebrations, July 15 was adopted as the official date.
In 1534, due to a lack of sanitary conditions, the capital was moved to Monte de los Padres (Morropón); in 1578, and for the same reason, it was moved again, this time to San Francisco de la Buena Esperanza (Paita). In 1588, the permanent attacks of the English pirates and privateers forced a final relocation of the capital to Piura.
During colonial times, life went by peacefully. Yet, the raids against the Spanish authorities led by Admirals Borran and Cochrane, members of the libertarian expedition of José de San Martín, woke the longing for liberty in the minds of the local people.
Piura is host to a stunning mestizo culture, since all races mix here. Local Piuranos have a different accent from their neighbours at both sides since: they tend elongate their syllables in a similar ways to northern Mexicans. Piuranos have their own proud slang. Locals for example, call themselves Churres (popular term used for a young Piuran or northern person).
Piuranos are characterized by their witty minds, melancolic Tondero music and welcoming personalities. Like all Peruvians, they are heavy drinkers of chicha de jora, pisco or beer and all of them have a tendency towards creativity and art as their source of income.
Gastronomical dishes like the Piuran Secho de Chavelo (the capital’s dish), Algarrobina cocktails, many types of ceviches and other seafoods like Majarisco and Pasao al Agua. Piura is famed for its natilla sweets as well.
The warm climate of this region forbids hard labour from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., so it is common tradition to take siestas and better to wake up early to get important stuff done before noon.
Processions and religious folk is passionately practiced by locals. One of them is Cristo de Ayabaca.
Popular crafts are the Chulucana Pottery and handy hats and silversmith arts made from the Catacaos Province.
Northern cowboys can still be seen today wandering the deserts of Sechura, Catacaos and the forests of Morropon transporting their goods using donkeys and mules. They seem to resemble physically the “American Southwest” cowboys, or Argentinian gauchos and Mexican charros. They are noted not only for their abilities to sing and play Cumanana and Tondero but as silversmiths that work the beautiful filigree earrings, leathers, hats, wooden and silver utensils of Catacaos region.
The Tondero and Cumanana are the traditional music of the Piura Region. The great exponents of these passionate rhythms are the cowboys called piajenos. Apparently they point to have a Roma, or Gypsy, origin.
Chicha music, now called Tecnocumbia (originally a Peruvian styled cumbia), is the modern version of popular music all over, as well as Salsa among youngsters.
Another great tradition that is sung by all northern Peruvians is the famous Peruvian Waltz, well practiced by traditional musicians (northern Peruvians have their style).
One of the best known tourist attractions in Piura is La Esmeralda beach, known as Colan for it is located near the town of Colan. Colan beach is a very long beach with warm waters. Local people like to go there during holidays.
There are also great spots for surfers, like Mancora Beach and Cabo Blanco.
Piura is served by the Cap. FAP Guillermo Concha Iberico International Airport.
Culture and folklore
Piura is host to a stunning mestizo culture (one of the oldest in South America, Piura is the third Spanish city founded on that continent) most famous for gastronomical dishes like Seco de chabelo, algarrobina-based drinks, many types of seafood and fish, like ceviche and Natilla Sweets. Popular crafts are the Chulucana Pottery and Catacaos is famous for its “Hats” and “Silversmith” arts. The small town of Simbila, is very popular for its handcrafts and pottery. The tondero and cumanana are the traditional music of mestizo Piura and northern parts of Lambayeque. There are also several famous Peruvian Waltz that came from these regions (northern Peruvians have their own style).
Máncora is a town and beach resort in the Piura Region, in northwestern Peru. It is located in the Talara Province and is capital of the Máncora District. The town has 8,852 inhabitants (1999).
The Pan-American Highway serves as Máncora’s main street. The area is known for its turquoise beaches and good waves, making it a surfing destination. The beach town has over 30 different beach resorts that receive tourists from all over South America. It has a large proportion of restaurants and nightclubs for such a small town of 10,000. Resorts rim the nearby kilometers of beaches connected by a road. Most people arrive by bus, private car, or plane from the Talara Airport or Tumbes Airport. Currently, tourism is booming as a large influx of tourists take to the beaches all year round. In 2005, 340,000 tourists visited Mancora. Las Pocitas de Mancora, 10 minutes South, is one of the prettiest of all the area
This beach location is favored by two ocean currents year round: the cold Humboldt Current 14 to 19 C° and the warm Niño Current 21 to 27 C°, giving it a tropical-dry climate with ocean waters averaging around 24 C°.
Summers last from December to April and are very hot. Rain is usual during the night and the temperature can reach over 38 °C. The rest of the year is dry, breezy, and sunny. The temperature during winter and spring never falls below 25 C° during daytime and is usually around the high 20’s. Night temperatures drop to around 17 C°
Máncora is very famous for doing sports: It has a bay that attracts a lot of people for Surfing. Furthermore, the winds are great for Kitesurfing. During the Peruvian summer there are a lot of people travelling to Máncora just for these activities.
The Wall of Trujillo
Due to the proximity of the city to the sea (about 4 km [2.5 miles] away) and the danger of attack by pirates and privateers, the Wall of Trujillo was built for defense during the reign of Viceroy Melchor de Navarra and Rocafull and the city mayors Bartolome Martinez and Fernando Ramirez Jarabeitia Orellana. This wall was built by an Italian architect, Giuseppe Formento, who began construction on February 19, 1687. Formento based his design on that by Leonardo da Vinci for the Italian city of Florence. The wall was designed in an elliptical shape to save costs in its construction, and was completed in 1689. The wall reached a perimeter of 5.5 km (3.4 miles) and used more than 100,000 bricks. The defensive structure was composed of 15 bastions, 15 shades and 5 covered gates.
The Huamán Gate was oriented westward to the road to the village of the same name. The Mansiche Gate was located to the north, giving way to the highway. The Miraflores Gate opened to the east. The Sierra Gate was named after the road leading to this region. Lastly, the Moche Gate gave access to people coming from the south. In 1942 the city developed a master plan; following the path of the ancient wall, it built Avenida España to encircle the area now called the Historical Center of Trujillo.
In the latter half of the 17th century, severe droughts and pestilence caused a major economic crisis for the city, which depended on agriculture. Trujillo regained prominence in the 18th century, in part due to the destruction of the city of Saña by flooding in 1720. Trujillo also suffered from flooding in 1701, 1720, 1728 and 1814; and earthquakes in 1725 and 1759.
By 1760 an estimated 9,200 people were living in the vicinity of the city. The foundation of the Municipality of Trujillo in 1779 coincided with a peak of prosperity for the city. Numerous undeveloped lots remained within the city walls but Trujillo was regarded as one of the most important cities in Northern Peru during the colonial era.
Inspired by liberal ideas from members of its educational institutions, Trujillo became a principal centre of Peruvian republican sentiments. Led by the city mayor and intendant José Bernardo de Tagle, the Intendancy of Trujillo declared its independence from Spain on December 29, 1820.
Between 1821 and 1825 the Trujillo region was the only stable and productive land within the nascent republic. In 1823 Trujillo took on the role of the first capital city of the Republic of Peru. On July 19, 1823 the Peruvian Congress located here repeated its invitation to Simón Bolívar, a leader in Bolivia, to join the war of independence. In 1824 the city received the liberation army of Bolívar, and was again designated as the seat of government. It is the only city to have twice been designated as the capital.
The years following the revolution saw the growth in the economic influence of the city, compensating for a loss of political power to Lima when it was designated as the capital, which instead suffered from the resulting political turmoil. The Moche and Chicama valleys emerged as new economic enclaves for the sugar cane industry. Land was increasingly concentrated in large estates and a new “agricultural aristocracy” developed that was linked to and influenced national political power. The policy of free trade and openness to foreign investment attracted an influx of Europeans, principally from Britain and Germany. By then, Trujillo had a population of 15,000 and began to grow beyond the city walls. New architectural styles were adopted, influenced by French and English Romanticism.
During the War of the Pacific against Chile between 1879 and 1883, Trujillo contributed troops towards national defence. Although never a site of battle, Trujillo suffered from occupation by Chilean troops and their plundering of the surrounding countryside.
First Independent City of Peru
It is considered the “First Independent City of Peru” for three reasons: it proclaimed independence from Spain on December 24, 1820 at the historical “Casa de la Emancipación” (House of Emancipation). Its leaders signed the declaration of independence at the Seminario de San Carlos y San Marcelo and proclaimed independence to an open council meeting in the Plaza de Armas, on December 29, 1820. Finally, on January 6, 1821 its leaders ratified the agreement and the proclamation of the independence of this city, as stated in the document called Libro rojo (the Red Book) of the Trujillo council.
Their actions gained independence for almost all of northern Peru, because the government of Trujillo city ruled what is now the regions of Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, San Martín and Amazonas. Marquis of Torre Tagle said, “My people. From this time for the unanimous will of the people, Trujillo is free. I put our fate and that of people under the protection of Heaven! Long live the homeland! Long live independence!”
Trujillo is located at an altitude of 34 metres (112 feet) on a coastal strip in the west of the province of Trujillo, in the old valley of Chimor today known as the Moche or Santa Catalina Valley. Its main square is located at.
8°6′3″S 79°1′34″W / 8.10083°S 79.02611°W / -8.10083; -79.02611 longitude at an altitude of 31.16 metres (102.23 feet) above sea level and lies 4.40 kilometres (2.73 miles) inland from the Pacific Ocean, in a straight line along Avenido Larco.
This city has a mild desert climate (BWh or BWn, according to the Köppen climate classification) and it is known as La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (city of everlasting spring) because of its sunny and pleasant weather year-round. The International Spring Festival in early October attracts visitors from all over Peru and the world. The city is in an area of mild climate and low rainfall, with moderate temperatures ranging between 14 and 30 °C (57 and 86 °F) due to the Humboldt Current. Trujillo has a warm climate during the day and mild during the night due to the sea breeze. It has an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F), and the extreme minimum and maximum temperatures fluctuate between 17 and 28 °C (63 and 82 °F) in winter and summer, respectively. Rains are light, sporadic and occur during the afternoon or evening. The Andes and their foothills are very close to the coast, and having a lower elevation relative to the mountains of central and southern Peru, the flow of moist air from the Amazon region, which converges with the sea breezes from the west, favors during the summer a higher frequency of light showers. According to the climate classification of Thornthwaite, city of Trujillo would correspond to an arid climate type with no rain during all seasons.
The parts of the city closest to the sea experience haze during the morning and usually the temperature is lower than in the central and upper parts of the city. However, during the phenomenon of El Niño the climate varies, mainly the rainfall, with less intensity than in regions located north of the city, and the temperature can also be lifted.
Tourism is a major industry in Trujillo due to the city’s proximity to important sites where the Moche and Chimu civilizations evolved. These civilizations had highly skilled artisans, and many of their artifacts having been found during archaeological digs in the city. Nearby ruins include the Chimu adobe city of Chan Chan, the world’s largest city built from that material. It is sometimes called Ciudad de la Luna (City of the Moon) because the people worshipped the moon; or de las Largas Murallas (of the Long Walls). In size and complexity, it has been compared with Teotihuacan in Mexico, and the ancient cities of Egypt. Other nearby ruins are the Moche ruins of Huaca del Sol, Huaca de la Luna, Huaca del Dragón o Arco Iris, Huaca Esmeralda and El Brujo.
Trujillo aspires to be designated a World Heritage Site, because of the proximity of both cultures and its historical colonial city centre, whose historic casonas(mansions) attract many visitors. The mansions and manors of Trujillo are distinguished for their solemn and austere façades. Inside, their halls are overflowing with ornaments.
Trujillo’s wrought-iron window railings are a unique feature of the mansions. The House of Ganoza-Chopitea (casa Ganoza) has a polychromatic front in the baroque style, crowned by a rococo frontispiece and two lions. It is the city’s most representative example of casonas architecture. Another is the House of Mayorazgo, which was built in the early years of the city and holds one of Peru’s greatest numismatic collections. The revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar lived in a house on the Plaza de Armas.
The world-famous beach Huanchaco, a surfing destination, is located just north of Trujillo.
Trujillo’s restaurants offer a wide variety of local food, such as shambar, mostly served on Mondays; ceviche, sopa teologa and cabrito.
Currently the Moche Route is a tourist destination starting in what was formerly the seat of government of the Moche culture in the Temples of the Sun and the Moon, about four miles (6.4 kilometres) south of the historic center of Trujillo, and consequently the “Route Moche “can be conceptualized as one in which the tourist can experience the ancient Mochica traditions that endure to this day and which are reflected in the excellence of its cuisine, the work of its people and its beautiful beaches, this in a universe with its own identity. The route covers a number of places that were part of the dominions of the Moche kingdom in its heyday.
Tourist attractions The historic centre of Trujillo
The historic centre of Trujillo occupies an area of 133.5ha and consists of a total of 1.783 lots, grouped in 72 blocks are located within the area that was known as the “Fence Trujillo,” and was originally defined by the wall of the ciudad. Currently the historic center of Trujillo is bordered by the España Avenue, it may find many buildings dating from the colonial and republican periods, between attractions offered by the historic center of Trujillo we have the following:
- Plaza de Armas (main square), is surrounded by the Cathedral, colonial mansions and Republican harmonious. In the center stands the Freedom Monument (Trujillo), which represents the process of independence. The statue was made in France, the materials used are marble and copper, the sculptor was Edmund Moeller.
- The Cathedral, built between 1647 and 1666, their altars are Baroque and Rococo style, preserved the paintings belong to the Cuzco school of painting and Quito school. The cathedral has the Cathedral Museum with mostly religious works of the colonial era gold and silver.
- Casa del Mayorazgo or Casa Tinoco (House Tinoco), built in the 16th century by the owners of the first sugar factory of Facalá. There he designed the first flag of independence in 1820, is located on a corner of Pizarro and Bolognesi streets. The main entrance is located on the Pizarro Jr. 314. This historical monument shows beautiful balconies on both fronts.
- Casa Calonge or Urquiaga, built in a neoclassical style, between the 18th and 19th centuries, Simon Bolivar stayed in this house, from which organized much of his campaign and issued decrees declaring emancipation Trujillo Capital of the Republic of Peru and creating the Superior Court of Justice. You can see the desk used by Bolivar, gold ornaments of the Chimu culture, as well as period furniture.
- Casa Ganoza, for its architecture, the house is very representative of Trujillo. The house is known for the cover of the lions as its Baroque is crowned by a pediment Rococo and two lions.
- Casa of Emancipation, This house served as headquarters of the First Constitutional Congress and government house of former President Jose de la Riva Agüero.
- Chan Chan
The largest Pre-Columbian city in the Americas, was built by the Chimu, is located north of the city of Trujillo and is one of the most impressive places of Peru, UNESCO declared Chan Chan World Heritage Site in 1986.
The Temples of the Sun and Moon
The Temples of the Sun and Moon are monuments of Peru, located about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Trujillo in the Moche district. This archaeological site represented physically the capital of the Mochica culture from 1st century AD until the 9th century, the museum is next to one of the most visited places in the northern city of Trujillo. The Temple of the Moon or Huaca de la Luna has been considered as a religious center of the mochicas.
- Huaca Esmeralda
Located three blocks from the temple of Mansiche, urbanization La Esmeralda. The temple is a rectangular building about 65 by 41 metres (213 by 135 feet). Consists of two platforms. The first, located at the entrance, is the last stage of construction Chimu, the decor is fishing nets with fish inside. Behind the second platform and the oldest is similar to the Tschudi Palace decorated with designs of the network and the sea otter.
- Huaca del Dragón
The Huaca del Dragon or as also called, Huaca del Arco Iris is located in the north, in the District of La Esperanza and near Chan Chan. This is a large religious monument, administrative and ceremonial center built in adobe, whose murals are decorated with friezes in relief showing stylized human figures and representing the rainbow.
- Huaca Takaynamo, it is located in La Esperanza district.
Caballito de totora
The manufacturing of ships called Caballito de totora is a tradition in Huanchaco beach. These are used for fishermen in their work and also for navegation of the tourists as a distraction adventure.
- Huanchaco Beach
Huanchaco is considered a World Surfing Reserve and It is located in Huanchaco District; It is a traditional tourist resort of Trujillo, one can see the rafts called horses of totora used since the time of the Chimu for fishing activities. It also highlights the fishing harbor, icon representing the place. Huanchaco is famous for several things but particularly for being a surfer’s dream spot and for its caballitos de totora. The most famous and original food here is the ceviche.
- Countryside of Moche
The district of Moche, is traversed by the Moche River and is home to the Temples of the Sun and the Moon, that were the capital of the Moche culture, countryside centers are also where you can taste typical dishes like soup theologian, in the Moche countryside are located traditional Trujillo restaurants of the “Mochica”; honorable mention deserves the Moche urban area with its main square. The countryside is rich in tradition and history.
- Lake Conache
Lake Conache is located within a large nature reserve in the village of Conache, in the district of Laredo, has an approximate area of 9 hectares is close to the Pampas de San Juan, jurisdiction of Santo Domingo, Laredo. The big dunes that are around it, are ideal for sandboarding very close to the lagoon is a forest of carob.
- Countryside of Simbal, It is located in Simbal District.
- El Brujo, is an Archaeological Complex located about 45 km north of Trujillo, is an ancient monument of the Moche culture. It includes Huaca Prieta (from preceramic times and later extended by the Cupisnique culture) and the nearby colonial remains of Salinar, Moche, Lambayeque, Chimú. Huaca El Brujo (or Cortada/Partida) and Huaca Cao Viejo (or Huaca Blanca) were built by the Moche sometime between 1 and 600 AD. Huaca Cao Viejo is famous for its polychrome reliefs and mural paintings, and the discovery of the Dama de Cao, the first known Governess in Peru.
Trujillo, has always been the capital of a region whose cultural traditions dating back to at least twelve thousand years old. The existing archaeological sites like the Temple of the Sun and Moon and the city of Chan Chan demonstrate the cities vocation of cultural capital. Trujillo now emerges as a cultural capital, service center and equipment, with its universities, schools and basic technology, they are developing a comprehensive capital and a base for sustained innovations for development.
Museums and Exhibition Halls
- Museo del Juguete (Toy Museum)
Located a few blocks from the Plaza de Armas with its coffee bar is one of the most splendid of the city and unique in the country, owned by renowned painter Gerardo Chavez, here you can find toys to mid-20th-century.
- Museo de Arte Moderno (Museum of Modern Art)
Another museum belonging to the painter Gerardo Chavez, is located in the urbanization Semirustica El Bosque, the museum displays works of prominent artists, both national and foreign, and sculptures but also find a coffee bar and souvenir sales, is the first museum of modern art in Peru.
- Museo Casa de la Emancipación (Emancipation House Museum)
Is considered as a Civic Sanctuary of the city: here the Marquis Torre Tagle conceived the independence of Trujillo in 1820. Also here was Hosted the First Constitutional Congress and the Government Palace with Riva Agüero.Nowadays it hosts cultural exhibitions.It is located on the corner of Jiron Gamarra with Jiron Pizarro streets; is a traditional cultural center for excellence in Trujillo, here are art exhibitions and special ceremonies are performed in the central courtyard. With a well-restored house belonging to Banco Continental, is a must for all tourists seeking culture in Trujillo.
- Museo Huacas de Moche (Museum of Moche Temples)
Located at the foot of the Huaca de la Luna in the Moche District, this modern museum was opened in 2010 and it shows the recent archaeological discoveries of the Moche ceremonial religious center. Next to the Mochica monuments is a great touristic circuit for not stop visiting in Trujillo.
- Chan Chan Museum
The museum is located at the foot of Chan Chan, the largest mud city in Latin America are shown in the most important findings found in the Chimu city as well as studies on political and religious division.
Festivals and Events
Trujillo city has many national and international festivals. Festivals and events occurring regularly include:
- Marinera Festival
A festival of typical dance is very representative of the city, the national competition is organized by the Club Libertad and takes place the last week of January, couples of dancers from different parts of the country and the world are prepared every year for contest the top of the different categories of competition that draws thousands of tourists every year. It also highlights the marinera parade also with the participation of Peruvian paso horses and typical riders called chalanes through the main streets of the historic center.
- Trujillo Spring Festival (Spring International Festival)
Is considered by some as the most representative festival of the city that lives up to the nickname he carries. The festival is one of the most important in Peru and is done in early October of each year, by the Lions Club of La Libertad Region. The first festival was held in 1950, and has been held annually since. The flower festival has a rich and varied program of over a hundred activities to meet the tastes and interests of Trujillo people and thousands of domestic and foreign tourists. The activities are carried out for a month in which the city takes on a festive environment, thousands of domestic and foreign tourists arriving in the town for various events like the coronation of the Queen of Spring, competition horses step, the parade of foreign queens and Spring Corso through the main avenues of the city, where visitors revel in the maneuvers of the Guaripolas. The festival closes with the spring parade or corso and a private party organized by the Lions Club.
- San Jose Festival
Held in the resort of Las Delicias in the district of Moche on March 14, 15 and 16, is a feast day and it has been a tradition with a strong Spanish influence, which are enjoyed various activities for adults, youth and children, party hosts are Don Jose and Dona Josefa and Ms Maja, the event begins with the description of characters, activities, bars, flamenco dancing, etc. This festival is accompanied by a procession of the patron Saint Joseph, the fashion show, the bullfight, the parade of characters, and toromatch pamplonada in which involved several teams from other departments. Some houses are become in Spanish bars decorated with motifs like flags, grimaldas and posters.
- Contest of Peruvian Paso Horse
Trujillo is considered cradle of Peruvian paso horse and in the city there are contests organized by the Association of Breeders and Owners of Paso Horses in La Libertad, the best known and most important are The National Competition Paso Horses being done within the framework of the International Spring Festival made between September and October and in the Festival and International Competition of Marinera in January. Peruvian government has declared this kind of horses as Nation’s cultural heritage.
- Trujillo Book Festival, in the year 2012 it took place the 5th edition organized by the Peruvian Chamber of Book by agreement with the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo, in the framework of the celebrations of 477 years of Spanish foundation of Trujillo. This time, it is estimated that more than 100,000 visitors attended to the “Plazuela El Recreo” to the 152 cultural and artistic activities, such as book presentations, poetry readings, tributes, lectures, shows and children’s activities.
- Festival of Lyric Singing, It is an international festival that takes place in November of every year and it is a competition of singers from several countries. In 2011 took place the 15th edition of this festival. This event features singers international exponents of the lyric mainly from Americas, Asia and Europe, in addition have the presence of teachers and international pianists, It is organized by the Cultural Promotion Center of Trujillo, and it takes place in the Municipal theater of the city.
- Independence Day of Trujillo, is celebrated on December 29 of each year to commemorate the day of the proclamation of independence of Trujillo made in the Main Square in 1820 by the Marquis of Torre Tagle, It is officially declared a holiday in the entire province with many cultural and artistic activities in celebration.
- Carnival of Huanchaco
The festival took place from the early 20th century in the District of Huanchaco. District residents were emulating the famous Venetian Carnival, when, years later, the carnival was organized by the Huanchaco Club. The carnival has many activities including the crowning of the queen, surf contest, Luau party, Creativity in the Sand. The carnival parade among others, takes place in early February.
- Trujillo Ballet Festival
The International version began performing since 1977 at the Municipal Theatre with the participation of delegations from many countries of the world being well known, the national version is made with the participation of delegations representing various regions of country.
- Miss La Libertad
The city celebrates on April on every year the most important beauty event of the region. Every province of the region is represented by a miss that contest for the miss La Libertad title. This event has been realized in various locations including historical places as the Plaza de armas, the city of Chan Chan, Huanchaco beach etc.
- Trujillo Anniversary Week is celebrated in the first week of March to commemorate the date of installation of the first council (municipality) in the city on March 5, 1535 by Francisco Pizarro. The celebrations last about 5 days and it features the presentation of various cultural events.
- Carnival of Conache, it is held each year in the traditional town of Conache, located in Laredo District at southeast of the city . It consists of several activities including the crowning of the queen, and a big celebration with the ancient drink called Chicha. The carnival is a costumbrist event and it has been held since year 1996.
- Lord of Huaman Festival
It takes place in the town of Santiago de Huamán The origin of this traditional festival dates back more than 300 years. It is a religious festival that attracts the interest of pilgrims and tourists who visit the historic temple of Santiago de Huaman. The celebration of the festival takes place from 13 to 27 May in honor of the Lord of Huaman; are made novenas, rosary and confessions offered by his faithful devotees. The celebrations also include morning and afternoon sports.
- Gastronomic festival of Trujillo, also called Sabe a Perú, it honors flagship products of kitchen trujillana like pepper of moche. In addition, also performed various art shows and dances, as marinera and tondero. Also contests are held, such as the best dishes of the fair representatives from the gastronomy of Trujillo, among participants are restaurants, kitchens rural, huariques, etc
Trujillo’s gastronomy has a tasty and varied variety of dishes, in some cases ancient tradition, are prepared on the basis of fish, shellfish, seaweed, birds, livestock, land, etc., are counted in more than a hundred typical foods. The names of the dishes are almost always original and even natives. Today with the rise of Peruvian food in the city have established many institutes of gastronomy.
Among the most representative dishes include:
- Cebiche, several historical sources claim that this dish originated about 2000 years ago in the ancient Moche culture. which had its capital south of the city of Trujillo. The dish is prepared using 5 basic ingredients: fish fillet cut in chunks with lemon, onion, salt and chili or chili Moche. The dish is added to a variety of ingredients to taste, one result of this combination is mixed cebiche. Fish that can be used are very diverse and include species of both freshwater and sea, also includes other seafood such as shellfish and seaweed and even vegetables. The dish can be accompanied by products such as sweet potatoes, boiled corn, cassava, lettuce leaves, roasted corn, etc. According to historical sources Peruvian ceviche had originated first in the Moche culture on the coast of its present territory for over two thousand years. Different chronicles report that along the Peruvian coast was consumed fish with salt and chili. This dish has been declared National Cultural Heritage by the Peruvian government.
- Shambar, soup made with beans also includes smoked ham. Served with roasted corn. In restaurants traditionally served on Mondays.
- Theologian soup: broth turkey and / or chicken with soaked bread, potatoes, milk and cheese, is traditionally prepared in the district of Moche.
- Beans to the Trujillo: black beans with sesame seeds and chili mirasol.
- Pepián of turkey: turkey stew with rice, ground corn, cilantro and chili.
- Trujillo fish: steamed fish with eggs and onion sauce.
- Mollejitas to the sillao: exquisite dish served with onion salad and boiled yucc.
- The alfajores of Trujillo
In the city of Trujillo is typical the manufacturing and consumption of sweets and a series of traditional alfajores; formerly called Alfajor ofTrujillo that has been manufactured by various candy stores being the best known Dulcería Castañeda, this candy store has become a traditional brand of alfajores in the city; since 1925 they have made alfajores and various giant named alfajor king kong formerly known as “Alfajor of Trujillo”, “Dulcería Castañeda” currently has several locals. Its main products are their alfajores and which are requested as classics sweet souvenirs of the city of the everlasting spring.
Among the highlights typical drinks are chicha of Moche, made of jora; chicha of Magdalena de Cao, etc.
Music and dance
The music and dance that represents to the city is the Marinera, and the city is considered as Capital of Marinera, this dance and choreographic and musical forms in its various regional varieties, has been declared as national cultural heritage. The city has numerous dance academies where they grow this traditional dance, some since very young, also in these academies are preparing many participants from the city to the national competition of this dance held every year in January.
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Our hours are in Peruvian time (GTM -5)