CUSCO AND MACHU PICCHU
The Archeological Capital of America. Cusco bases on inka culture legacy, capital City is overlapped of mix  Colonial constructions using the Inca temples and fortress as a base for Churches and Houses, living the past and the present together, showing the meeting of two different cultures. Archaeological remains all over Cusco and surroundings shows mystic native Amerindians and mestizo heritage more than anywhere in the Americas.  The Inkas made Q´osqo (meaning; ”navel of the world” in quechua ) the political ,military and cultural center of the empire. Cusco empire´s holy city and epicenter of the Inka legendary network trails connecting all points in between Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

Cusco

Cusco is the center of the Tourism in Perú, Cusco city tour; is a day for visiting during the morning: The Cathedral build 1539 and La Merced, are made of stones from the Inca temples, the Koricancha ( temple of the sun), has Renaissance style it contains best manifestation of colonial Goldsmith and wood carving,  as well valuable collection canvases  from the Escuela Cusquena. The twelve Angle stone, San Blas Pulpit made from one entire piece tree trunk and the amazing local Market of San Pedro. On the afternoon after lunch The Inca remains around Cusco, like Saqsayhuaman, where the Ceremony of Inti Raimy have the main representation of the Incas time., Qénqo amphitheater, Puca Pucara or red fortress, Tambo Machay the Inca bath.

The History of Cusco is present from the Village of Pisaq to the Fortress of Ollantaytambo, Chincheros Market, Moray and Maras town with Pichingoto salt mines, Piquillaqta on the southern part with Tipon and the famous  Andahuaylillas Church. The Main festival in Cusco is the Inti Raimy feast on June 24th, every Year is a prolific festival to thank the Sun God for the upcoming harvest season, the true representation of the Incas Time.

  • Altitude: 3,350 mts. a s l
  • Climate: Dry with sunny days and cold nights. Temperatures 74-50 °F / 24 – 10 °C
  • Rainy season: December to March,

Around Cusco many activities are Possible like Trekking, Mountain Bike, Rafting, Horse Riding, and the Famous Inca Trail to Machu Picchu.

Machu Picchu:  The Jewel of Cusco, Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge 2,430 meters (7,970 ft) above sea level It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machu Picchu district in Perú, above the Sacred Valley, which is 80 kilometers (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba river flows. Machu Picchu lies in the southern hemisphere, 13.164 degrees south of the equator. It is 80 kilometers (50 miles) northwest of Cusco, on the crest of the mountain Machu Picchu, over 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) lower than Cusco, which has an elevation of 3,600 meters (11,800 ft). As such, it had a milder climate than the Inca capital. It is one of the most important archaeological sites in South America, one of the most visited tourist attractions in Latin America and the most visited in Peru.

HISTORY Killke culture

The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca later expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century. On 13 March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman. The temple covers some 2,700 square feet (250 square metres) and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies, establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility.

Inca history

Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people. It was the capital of the Inca Empire (13th century-1532). Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a puma, a sacred animal.[13] How Cusco was specifically built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: the urin and hanan. Each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Kuntisuyu (SW) and Qullasuyu (SE). A road led from each of quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire.

Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory. After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (split inheritance). Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death.

According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu. Archaeological evidence, however, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. The city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested that this city plan was replicated at other sites.

The city fell to the sphere of Huáscar during the Inca Civil War after the death of Huayna Capac in 1527. It was captured by the generals of Atahualpa in April 1532 in the Battle of Quipaipan. Nineteen months later, Spanish explorers invaded the city (see battle of Cuzco) and gained control because of their arms and horses, employing superior military technology.

After the Spanish invasion

The first three Spaniards arrived in the city in May 1533, after the Battle of Cajamarca, collecting for Atahualpa’s Ransom Room. On 15 November 1533 Francisco Pizarro officially arrived in Cusco. “The capital of the Incas…astonished the Spaniards by the beauty of its edifices, the length and regularity of its streets.” The great square was surrounded by several palaces, since “each sovereign built a new palace for himself.” “The delicacy of the stone work excelled” that of the Spaniards’. The fortress had three parapets and was composed of “heavy masses of rock.” “Through the heart of the capital ran a river…faced with stone.” “The most sumptuous edifice in Cuzco…was undoubtedly the great temple dedicated to the Sun…studded with gold plates…surrounded by convents and dormitories for the priests.” “The palaces were numerous and the troops lost no time in plundering them of their contents, as well as despoiling the religious edifices,” including the royal mummies in the Coricancha.

Pizarro ceremoniously gave Manco Inca the Incan fringe as the new Peruvian leader. Pizarro encouraged some of his men to stay and settle in the city, giving out repartimientos to do so. Alcaldes were established and regidores on 24 March 1534, which included his brothers Gonzalo Pizarro and Juan Pizarro. Pizarro left a garrison of 90 men and then departed for Jauja with Manco Inca.

Pizarro renamed it the “Very noble and great city of Cuzco”. Buildings constructed after the Spanish invasion have a mixture of Spanish influence with Inca indigenous architecture, including the Santa Clara and San Blas neighborhoods. The Spanish destroyed many Inca buildings, temples and palaces. They used the remaining walls as bases for the construction of a new city.

Father Vincente de Valverde became the Bishop of Cusco and built his cathedral facing the plaza. He placed a St. Dominic monastery on the ruins of the House of the Sun and a nunnery where the House of the Virgins of the Sun was stood.

The city was retaken from the Spanish during the Siege of Cuzco of 1536 by Manco Inca Yupanqui, a leader of the Sapa Inca. Although the siege lasted 10 months, it was ultimately unsuccessful. Manco’s forces were able to reclaim the city for only a few days. He eventually retreated to Vilcabamba, the capital of the newly established small Neo-Inca State, which lasted for another 36 years but he was never able to return to Cuzco. Throughout the conflict and years of the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many Incas died of smallpox.

Cusco stands on layers of cultures, with the Tawantinsuyu (old Inca Empire) built on Killke structures and the Spanish replacing indigenous temples with Catholic churches and palaces, with mansions for the invaders.

Cusco was the center for the Spanish colonization and spread of Christianity in the Andean world. It became very prosperous thanks to agriculture, cattle raising and mining, as well as its trade with Spain. The Spanish colonists constructed many churches and convents, as well as a cathedral, university and Archbishopric.

Republican era

After Peru declared its independence in 1821, Cusco maintained its importance within Peru’s administrative structure. Upon independence, the government created the Department of Cuzco, maintaining authority over territory extending to the Brazilian border. Cusco was made capital of the department; subsequently it became the most important city in the south-eastern Andean region.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the city’s urban sprawl spread to the neighboring districts of Santiago and Wanchaq.

In 1911, explorer Hiram Bingham used the city as a base for the expedition in which he rediscovered the ruins of Machu Picchu.

Present

A major earthquake on 21 May 1950 caused the destruction of more than one third of the city’s structures. The Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Qurikancha (Temple of the Sun), were among the affected colonial era buildings. Inca architecture withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were at first thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite retaining walls of the Qurikancha were exposed, as well as those of other ancient structures throughout the city. Restoration work at the Santo Domingo complex exposed the Inca masonry formerly obscured by the superstructure without compromising the integrity of the colonial heritage. Many of the buildings damaged in 1950 had been impacted by an earthquake only nine years previously.

Since the 1990s, tourism has increased. Currently, Cusco is the most important tourist destination in Peru. Under the administration of mayor Daniel Estrada Pérez, a staunch supporter of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, between 1983 and 1995 the Quechua name Qosqo was officially adopted for the city.

Honors

 

  • In 1933, the Congress of Americanists met in La Plata, Argentina and declared the city as the Archeological Capital of the Americas.
  • In 1978, the 7th Convention of Mayors of Great World Cities met in Milan, Italy and declared Cusco a Cultural Heritage of the World.
  • In 1983, UNESCO, in Paris, France declared the city a World Heritage Site. The Peruvian government declared it the Tourism Capital of Peru and Cultural Heritage of the Nation.
  • In 2007, the New7Wonders Foundation designated Machu Picchu one of the New Seven Wonders of the World, following a worldwide poll.
Geography and climate

Cusco extends throughout the Huatanay (or Watanay) river valley. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). To its north is the Willkapampa mountain range with 4,000–6,000-metre-high (13,000–20,000-foot) mountains. The highest peak is Sallqantay (6,271 metres or 20,574 feet) about 60 kilometres (37 miles) northwest of Cusco.

Cusco has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). It is generally dry and temperate, with two defined seasons. The dry season lasts from May to August, with abundant sunshine and occasional nighttime freezes; July is the coolest month with an average of 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). The wet season lasts from December to March, with night frost less common; November averages 13.3 °C (55.9 °F). Although frost and hail are common, the only snowfall ever recorded was in June 1911. Temperatures usually range from 0.2 to 20.9 °C (32.4 to 69.6 °F), but the all-time temperature range is between −8.9 and 30 °C (16.0 and 86.0 °F). Sunshine hours peak in July; the equivalent of January in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, February, the equivalent of August in the northern hemisphere, has the least amount of sunshine.

Cusco was found in 2006 to be the spot on Earth with the highest average ultraviolet light level

Tourism

Presently, tourism has been the backbone to the economic growth starting in the early 2000s, bringing in more than 1.2 million tourists a year. In 2002, the income Cusco received from tourism was $837 million USD. In 2009, that number increased to $2.47 billion USD. Three appeals that account for Cusco’s tourism is: historical heritage, varied geography, and culinary reputation.

  • Historical Heritage – The Cusco region houses many historical sites, including the famous Machu Picchu, dating back to the 15th century before the arrival of the Spanish. Cusco is also a historical site as it was the capital of the Inca empire.
  • Varied Geography – The Andes Mountain Range runs through Peru, allowing a wide variety of biomes to exist in the country. Many tourists come to Cusco for its opportunities to see the different biomes and to hike and mountaineer.
  • Culinary Reputation – Over the last twenty years, Cusco, as well as many other cities in Peru, has had an increase of cooking popularity, resulting in an increase of tourist activity.

However, there are influences that limit the growth of tourism.

  • Poor Infrastructure – Because of the mountainous geography of Peru, the road systems throughout the Cusco region are very poor, allowing for slow transportation of tourists to and from cities and airports. Landslides are also another reason for transportation issues.
  • Crime – The are many cases where tourists are victims of being robbed of their belongings. Besides the major tourist destinations, police are unable to provide security to tourists on hiking routes.
  • Political Violence – In the period between 1980 and 2000, 70,000 people were killed in the war between the Sendero Luminoso guerrilla insurgency and the Peruvian government, discouraging many tourists to travel to Peru
Main sights

The indigenous Killke culture built the walled complex of Saksaywaman about 1100. The Killke built a major temple near Saksaywaman, as well as an aqueduct (Pukyus) and roadway connecting prehistoric structures. Saksaywaman was expanded by the Inca.

The Spanish explorer Pizarro sacked much of the Inca city in 1535. Remains of the palace of the Incas, Qurikancha (the Temple of the Sun) and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun still stand. Inca buildings and foundations in some cases proved to be stronger than the foundations built in present-day Peru. Among the most noteworthy Spanish colonial buildings of the city is the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco.

The major nearby Inca sites are Pachacuti’s presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which can be reached on foot by the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu or by train; and the “fortress” at Ullantaytampu.

Less-visited ruins include: Inka Wasi, the highest of all Inca sites at 3,980 m (13,060 ft); Willkapampa, the capital of the Inca after the capture of Cusco; the sculpture garden at Ñusta Hisp’ana (aka Chuqip’allta, Yuraq Rumi); Tipón with working water channels in wide terraces; as well as Willkaraqay, Patallaqta, Chuqik’iraw, Moray, Vitos and many others.

The surrounding area, located in the Watanay Valley, is strong in gold mining and agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee.

Cusco’s main stadium Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega was one of seven stadiums used when Peru hosted South America’s continental soccer championship, the Copa América, in 2004. The stadium is home to one of the country’s most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano.

The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport

Architectural heritage

Because of its antiquity and importance, the city center retains many buildings, plazas, streets and churches of pre-Columbian times and colonial buildings, which led to its declaration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Among the main sights of the city are:

Barrio de San Blas

This neighborhood houses artisans, workshops and craft shops. It is one of the most picturesque sites in the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish church in Cusco, built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit considered the epitome of Colonial era woodwork in Cusco.

The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Tuq’ukachi, which means the opening of the salt.

Hatun Rumiyuq

This neighborhood houses artisans, workshops and craft shops. It is one of the most picturesque sites in the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish church in Cusco, built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit considered the epitome of Colonial era woodwork in Cusco.

The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Tuq’ukachi, which means the opening of the salt.

Convent and Church of la Merced

Its foundation dates from 1536. The first complex was destroyed by the earthquake of 1650. Its rebuilding was completed in 1675.

Its cloisters of Baroque Renaissance style, choir stalls, colonial paintings and wood carvings are highlights, now a popular museum.

Also on view is an elaborate monstrance made of gold and gemstones that weighs 22 kg (49 lb) and is 130 cm (51.18 in) in height.

Cathedral

The first cathedral built in Cusco is the Iglesia del Triunfo, built in 1539 on the foundations of the Palace of Viracocha Inca. Today, this church is an auxiliary chapel of the Cathedral.

The main basilica cathedral of the city was built between 1560 and 1664. The main material used was stone, which was extracted from nearby quarries, although some blocks of red granite were taken from the fortress of Saksaywaman.

This great cathedral presents late-Gothic, Baroque and plateresque interiors and has one of the most outstanding examples of colonial goldwork. Its carved wooden altars are also important.

The city developed a distinctive style of painting known as the “Cuzco School” and the cathedral houses a major collection of local artists of the time. The cathedral is known for a Cusco School painting of the Last Supper depicting Jesus and the twelve apostles feasting on guinea pig, a traditional Andean delicacy.

The cathedral is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco.

Plaza de Armas Cusco

Known as the “Square of the warrior” in the Inca era, this plaza has been the scene of several important events, such as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Cuzco.

Similarly, the Plaza de Armas was the scene of the death of Túpac Amaru II, considered the indigenous leader of the resistance.

The Spanish built stone arcades around the plaza which endure to this day. The main cathedral and the Church of La Compañía both open directly onto the plaza.

Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús

This church (Church of the Society of Jesus), whose construction was initiated by the Jesuits in 1576 on the foundations of the Amarucancha or the palace of the Inca ruler Wayna Qhapaq, is considered one of the best examples of colonial baroque style in the Americas.

Its façade is carved in stone and its main altar is made of carved wood covered with gold leaf. It was built over an underground chapel and has a valuable collection of colonial paintings of the Cusco School.

Qurikancha and Convent of Santo Domingo

The Qurikancha (“golden place”) was the most important sanctuary dedicated to the Sun God (Inti) at the time of the Inca Empire.According to ancient chronicles written by Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Qurikancha was said to have featured a large solid golden disc that was studded with precious stones and represented the Inca Sun God – Inti. Spanish chroniclers describe the Sacred Garden in front of the temple as a garden of golden plants with leaves of beaten gold, stems of silver, solid gold corn-cobs and 20 life-size llamas and their herders all in solid gold.

The temple was destroyed by its Spanish invaders who, as they plundered, were determined to rid the city of its wealth, idolaters and shrines. Nowadays, only a curved outer wall and partial ruins of the inner temple remain at the site.

With this structure as a foundation, colonists built the Convent of Santo Domingo (St. Dominic) in the Renaissance style. The building, with one baroque tower, exceeds the height of many other buildings in this city.

Inside is a large collection of paintings from the Cuzco School.

Museums

Cusco has the following important museums:

  • Museo de Arte Precolombino (Peru)
  • Casa Concha Museum (Machu Picchu Museum)
  • Museo Inka
  • Museo Histórico Regional de Cuzco
  • Centro de Textiles Tradicionales del Cuzco
  • Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants (Museo de plantas sagradas, mágicas y medicinales)
  • ChocoMuseo (The Cacao and Chocolate Museum)

There are also some museums located at churches.

Cuisine

As capital to the Inca Empire, Cusco was an important agricultural region. It was a natural reserve for thousands of native Peruvian species, including around 3,000 varieties of potato cultivated by the people. Fusion and neo-Andean restaurants developed in Cusco, in which the cuisine is prepared with modern techniques and incorporates a blend of traditional Andean and international ingredients.

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